Oxytocin, 1200iu

Oxytocin, 1200iu

Brand: Full Catalog
Product Code: OX66
Availability:
In Stock
Price: $28.00
Description

Oxytocin

 

Oxytocin, a natural mammalian hormone that was first synthesized in 1953, is a peptide  that primarily acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain.  Oxytocin plays an extensive role in the female portion of the reproductive and birthing process: during and after labor, facilitating the birthing process; and also during breastfeeding when the nipple is stimulated.[1]   Though oxytocin is best-known for the aforementioned roles, recent studies have looked for and found links to more complex social behavior: bonding, anxiety, trust, love social recognition, and more.[1]  It even plays a role in orgasm and post-coitally.[1]

 

Oxytocin receptors are specific to oxytocin and are high-affinity rhodopsin-type G-protein-coupled receptors.[2]  They are found in the uterus, mammary gland, and various parts of the central nervous system.[2][3][4]  Oxytocin receptors are very chemically similar to vasopressin receptors which has created difficulty in prospective development of selective oxytocin receptor agonists.

 

In the so-called "Letdown reflex", in lactating (breastfeeding) mothers, oxytocin activates receptors in the mammary glands, causing milk to be released into subareolar sinuses, and then excreted from the nipple.[?] The mechanism of action begins by the infant sucking at the nipple; this information is relayed by spinal nerves to the hypothalamus. Neurons fire in intermittent bursts; these bursts result in the secretion of pulses of oxytocin from the neurosecretory nerve terminals of the pituitary gland.

 

Oxytocin also causes uterine contraction, which helps pre-birth cervical dilation and also causes contractions during the later stages of labor. Oxytocin released from breastfeeding sometimes causes mild (but painful) uterine contractions during the initial weeks of lactation. In knockout mice lacking the oxytocin receptor, reproductive behavior and parturition is normal.[5]

 

Two studies have found increases in plasma oxytocin at orgasm in both men and women.[6][7] Levels are notably increased around masturbatory orgasm and are still higher than baseline when measured 5 minutes after self arousal.[6] Oxytocin's effects on muscle contractions may facilitate sperm and egg transport.[6] Oxytocin serves an important role in sexual arousal according to a study done on women. Genital orifice stimulation resulted in increased oxytocin immediately after orgasm.[6] Another study reported increases of oxytocin during sexual arousal states which may be due in part to response to nipple, areola, genital, and/or genital orifice stimulation, which has been confirmed in other mammals.[8] Murphy found while studying men that oxytocin levels were elevated throughout sexual arousal with no acute increase at orgasm.[9] Another study on men found an increases in plasma oxytocin acutely after orgasm. The authors did note, however, that these changes "may simply reflect contractile properties on reproductive tissue."[10]

 

Citations:

[1]Lee HJ, Macbeth AH, Pagani JH, Young WS. "Oxytocin: the great facilitator of life". Progress in Neurobiology 88 (2): 127–51. 2009.

[2]Caldwell HK, Young WS 3rd. "Oxytocin and Vasopressin: Genetics and Behavioral Implications". in Lajtha, Abel; Ramon Lim. Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology (3rd ed.). Berlin: Springer. 2006.

[3]Kiss A, Mikkelsen JD. "Oxytocin--anatomy and functional assignments: a minireview". Endocrine Regulations 39 (3): 97–105.

[4]Veenema AH, Neumann ID. "Central vasopressin and oxytocin release: regulation of complex social behaviors". Progress in Brain Research 170: 261–76. 2008.

[5]Takayanagi Y, Yoshida M, Bielsky IF, et al. "Pervasive social deficits, but normal parturition, in oxytocin receptor-deficient mice". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102 (44): 16096–101. 2005.

[6]Carmichael MS, Warburton VL, Dixen J, Davidson JM. "Relationships among cardiovascular, muscular, and oxytocin responses during human sexual activity". Archives of Sexual Behavior 23 (1): 59–79. 1994.

[7]Blaicher W, Gruber D, Bieglmayer C, Blaicher AM, Knogler W, Huber JC. "The role of oxytocin in relation to female sexual arousal". Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 47 (2): 125–6. 1999.

[8]Anderson-Hunt M, Dennerstein L (1995). "Oxytocin and female sexuality". Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 40 (4): 217–21.

[9]Murphy MR, Seckl JR, Burton S, Checkley SA, Lightman SL. "Changes in oxytocin and vasopressin secretion during sexual activity in men". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 65 (4): 738–41.1987.

[10]Krüger TH, Haake P, Chereath D, et al.. "Specificity of the neuroendocrine response to orgasm during sexual arousal in men". The Journal of Endocrinology 177 (1): 57–64. 2003.

 

*The latter article is intended for educational / informational purposes only. THIS PRODUCT IS INTENDED AS A RESEARCH CHEMICAL ONLY. This designation allows the use of research chemicals strictly for in vitro testing and laboratory experimentation only. Bodily introduction of any kind into humans or animals is strictly forbidden by law

Reviews (0)

Write a review



Note: HTML is not translated!

Bad            Good

Related Products