Meclofenoxate, also known by the name centrophenoxine or the commercial name Lucidril, is used to treat symptoms of senile dementia in the elderly and Alzheimer's Disease. It is compounded from two distinct biochemical sources: dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) and parachlorophenoxyacetate (pCPA). DMAE is a choline analogue found in the human brain and also in many fish; it is also a precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. pCPA is a manmade compound similar to plant hormones known as auxins. pCPA also acts as an acetylcholine precursor. pSPA has the important function of increasing cell-membrane phospholipids, which may contribute to the anti-aging/cognitive-enhancing effect of meclofenoxate.
Meclofenoxate improves memory, increases mental stimulation, and improves general cognition. Though the primary clinical indications are for treatment of Alzheimer's disease and various forms of dementia, it has found a place in the anti-aging and life-extension hobbyist communities as a nootropic or smart drug.
Petkov et al found that in rats:
Meclofenoxate decreased the NA [noradrenaline] level in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus; it increased the DA [dopamine] level in the hippocampus and hypothalamus and the 5-HT [5-hydroxy-tryptophan or serotonin] level in the cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus and hypothalamus.
Petkov's study highlights some potential benefits of meclofenoxate treatment: reduced noradrenaline levels may result in a healthier physiological response to stress in an aging and frail brain; dopamine levels are depleted in aging brains, which is correlated with cognitive decline and memory loss and even death; and low levels of serotonin are associated with depression and anxiety.
Petkov et al also found, in a separate study on rats, that:
The effects of adafenoxate (Adf), meclofenoxate (Mf), piracetam (Pc), and citicholine (CCh) on scopolamine (Scop)--impaired memory and exploratory behavior (experiments on rats) and on physical capabilities (experiments on mice) were studied...[all drugs tested] prevented to a large extent or completely the scopolamine-induced retrograde amnesia.
Meclofenoxate significantly increased free radical scavenging agents as measured in aging rats, and when combined with either zinc or an extract of gingko biloba, exhibited potentiated effects on blood pressure and heart rate:
Aged rats are highly prone to many physiological changes such as blood pressure and heart rate. These changes could be due to modification in membrane phospholipid composition of their blood vessels. Lipid peroxide in vivo has been identified as a basic deteriorative reaction in cellular mechanisms of aging in human. The effect of a nootropic drug, meclofenoxate (MF) or its combination with extract of ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) or zinc (Zn) on malondialdehyde (MDA) product as an index of endogenous lipid peroxidation; phospholipid; glutathione (GSH) and protein thiols (PrSHs) contents as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in blood, brain, heart and liver of 24-month-old male rats was investigated. Aged rats were treated with MF once daily at oral doses of 100 mg kg-1 body wt. alone or with either EGb at a dose of 150 mg kg-1 body wt. or Zn at 10.5 mg kg-1 body wt. for 4 weeks. This study showed that aging caused a higher increment in MDA level of brain and heart than liver and plasma accompanied with reduction in brain and heart phospholipid contents as well as alteration of the antioxidant systems as compared to 4-month-old rats. Treatment of aged rats with MF alone or combined with either EGb or Zn caused improvement in the measured free radical scavengers especially in brain and heart tissues. Our results also showed that both EGb and Zn induced a significant potential effect of MF action on blood pressure and heart rate. The results were explained in the light of the antioxidant properties of EGb and Zn. Thus it is concluded that EGb and Zn have a beneficial role with MF in diminishing cumulative oxidative changes in aging.
Centrophenoxine increased synaptic plasticity in Wistar rats of various ages.
Zs.-Nagy et al found:
The rates of total and polyA sup +RNA (mRNA) synthesis were measured by radioisotope technique in the brain cortex of female CFY rats. There was practically no significant difference between the young (1.5 months) and adult (13 months) rats; however, the old group (26 months) displayed a considerable decrease of the rates of synthesis of both classes of RNA studied. Centrophenoxine treatment (100 mg per kg body weight per day, for 2 months) reversed this tendency, and increased significantly the synthesis rates of old rats almost to the adult level. The results are interpreted in terms of the membrane hypothesis of aging, attributing a free-radical scavenger function of the dimethylamino-ethanol incorporated into the nerve cell membrane from the centrophenoxine.
Lucidril (Centrophenoxine) manufacturer's insert and recommendatons. On site Anti-Aging Systems.
Petkov VD, Stancheva SL, Tocuschieva L, Petkov VV. Changes in brain biogenic monoamines induced by the nootropic drugs adafenoxate and meclofenoxate and by citicholine (experiments on rats).Gen Pharmacol. 1990;21(1):71-5.
Petkov VD, Mosharrof AH, Petkov VV. Comparative studies on the effects of the nootropic drugs adafenoxate, meclofenoxate and piracetam, and of citicholine on scopolamine-impaired memory, exploratory behavior and physical capabilities (experiments on rats and mice). Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. 1988;14(1):3-13.
al-Zuhair H, Abd el-Fattah A, el-Sayed MI. The effect of meclofenoxate with ginkgo biloba extract or zinc on lipid peroxide, some free radical scavengers and the cardiovascular system of aged rats. Pharmacol Res. 1998 Jul;38(1):65-72.
C Bertoni-Freddari, C Giuli, C Pieri. The effect of acute and chronic centrophenoxine treatment on the synaptic plasticity of old rats. ARCH. GERONTOL. GERIATR. (NETHERLANDS), 1982, 1/4 (365-373)
Zs.-Nagy, I. Semsei, Centrophenoxine increases the rates of total and mRNA synthesis in the brain cortex of old rats: An explanation of its action in terms of the membrane hypothesis of aging, Experimental Gerontology, 19:3, 171-178. 1984.
*The latter article is intended for educational / informational purposes only. THIS PRODUCT IS INTENDED AS A RESEARCH CHEMICAL ONLY. This designation allows the use of research chemicals strictly for in vitro testing and laboratory experimentation only. Bodily introduction of any kind into humans or animals is strictly forbidden by law.Meclofenoxate meta-description: